The Ainu are an indigenous ethnic group of Japan and Russia. They have their own lifestyle, customs, traditions, and language. Culturally speaking, the Ainu can be separated into three distinct groups: Hokkaido Ainu, Karafuto Ainu, and Chishima Ainu.

History[edit | edit source]

Approximately 300 A.C Honchu with the knowledge acquired between the Yayoi period and the Muromachi period, the Ainu people in Hokkaido have extensive experience in the period of pottery culture. Similar to the Zoku-Jomon period, the Satsumon period and the Okhotsk culture.

The Ainu culture expanded during the period from 1400 to the period of 1700. According to the theories, the Satsumon culture developed within the Ainu culture with a direct influence of the Okhotsk culture (however scholars did not prove this theory in the Honchu period, in the Yayoi period, in the Muromachi period, in the Zoku-Jomon period and in the Satsumon period to the present moment).

Around 1400 Japan intensified its influence to the south of Hokkaido, first in Esashi and Matsue, soon after the Japanese began colonization of the territory of the Ainu people. The Ainu resisted Japanese oppression between 1400 and 1789 (there is no exact date), and they abandoned the battle of Kosyamain in 1457, the battle of Syaksyain in 1669 and the battle of Kunasiri-menasi in 1789. The Ainu were defeated in this period, between 1400 and 1789. By losing the battle of Kunasiri-menasi, the Ainu were under the control of the Japanese colonizers.

The Ainu people were pressured to adopt Japanese names and were exploited as labor by the Japanese until the Meiji period in the period of political and governmental transformation. The Ainu people were banned from publicly practicing their customs and culture and were forced to adopt Japanese customs and culture. In 1899, the Aborigines of Hokkaido formed the defensive actions, the first action of the Aborigines of Hokkaido was a restructuring of the Ainu people and help them with the word of Japanese farmers. At the end of the Meiji period with an increasing number of Japanese colonizing Hokkaido by Honshu, oppression over the Ainu people was fraught with cultural discrimination. The Ainu people and their indigenous culture continue to face discrimination over the years. However, discrimination has greatly diminished since 1900 and some Ainus have achieved prominent position in Japanese arts and politics, and most of the Ainus have definitely integrated into Japanese society.

Ainu kamuy episode 03.png

Baptism[edit | edit source]

The Ainus have the habit of trying to protect babies from the spirits that bring disease by giving them disgusting names. When a child is six years old and already has their personality formed, they give them a name based on what they have done in their lives.

Belief[edit | edit source]

The Ainu people respect the useful and usable things for them. Things that are beyond your comprehension are under the control of "Kamui" (God). The Ainu people pray and perform various ceremonies for God. Their Gods include:

  • God nature: fire, water, wind and thunder.
  • Animal God: bears, foxes, owls and whales.
  • God plant: mushrooms and mugwort.
  • God object: canoes and pots.
  • Gods who protect their homes, Gods of the mountains and Gods of the lakes.
  • Wen Kamuy: According to the Ainu, an animal becomes an evil God when killing a human being

Term and Languages[edit | edit source]

The Ainu People have their own language, and there are numerous words and terms that have been spoken throughout the entirety of the series, all of which will be listed below. This list includes the Hokkaido Ainu, the Karafuto Ainu, and the Orok People.

Hokkaido Ainu[edit | edit source]

Term Meaning Reference
Asinru Ainu word for "toilet" Ch. 126
Atusa Nupuri "The Naked Mountain" Ch. 119
Atuy kor ekasi

A name for sea turtles that means "old man that rules the sea"

Ch. 114
Ay Ainu word for "arrow" Ch. 3
Bokke Means "hot" or "boiling" Ch. 120
Cepker Winter boots made from salmon skin Ch. 127
Cikapset Ainu word for "birdhouse" Ch. 119
Cikap ur Ainu word for "birdskin clothing" Ch. 151
Cikisani A straw-shaped tree root Ch. 204
Cinoyetet Ainu word for "torch" Ch. 195
Cinru Snow shoes for use on crusty snow Ch. 3
Cipopsayo Gruel made from cooked rice or millet with salmon roe added Ch. 127
Cippo Ainu needle case Ch. 160
Cipor Ainu word for "salmon roe" Ch. 91
Cipor ninap A tool that is used to crush salmon roe Ch. 91
Ciporrataskep Potatoes boiled with salt mashed up and mixed with salmon roe Ch. 127
Ciptacikap Ainu word for black woodpeckers that means "boat carving bird" Ch. 109
Cise sirosi "Home marking" that is left behind by bears Ch. 125
Ciw Ainu word meaning "to penetrate" Ch. 116
Cukcep Ainu term for salmon meaning "Autumn fish" Ch. 125
Ecinke Ainu word for "sea turtles" Ch. 114
Ekimne kuwa Ainu word for "walking stick" Ch. 3
Emus A man's sword that is used for ceremonies Ch. 125
Ermu Ainu word for "mouse" Ch. 101
Etaspe Ainu word for "sea lions" Ch. 147
Etopirika Ainu word for "tufted puffin"; also called Etupirika Ch. 151
Etu Ainu word for "beak" Ch. 151
Hapo Ainu word for "mother" Ch. 254
Haruikkew Ainu word for giant lilies that means "the backbone of our diet" Ch. 92
Hat Ainu word for "Crimson glory grapevine" Ch. 125
Hay Ainu word for "ouch" Ch. 114
Heperoypep Tool that is used to feed bear cubs
Heperset Cage used to keep bear cubs in Ch. 110
Hoparata A term for flapping the sleeves during a crane dance Ch. 108
Hoynu Ainu word for "martens" Ch. 159
Huraruykina Ainu word for Alpine leek that means "strong smelling grass" Ch. 73
Hure ecinke Ainu word for "Loggerhead sea turtles" Ch. 114
Icaniw Ainu word for "Masu salmon" Ch. 73
Ihuminu

Ainu word for "psychic sense"

Ch. 95
Ikayop Ainu word for "quiver" Ch. 3
Inaw Wooden ritual sticks Ch. 109
Iomante

A ceremony to send off bears that have been raised in cages

Ch. 113
Isapakikni A club used to hit fishes on the head to kill them Ch. 125
Iutani Ainu word for "pestle" Ch. 91
Kamuy Hopinire A ceremony to send off adult brown bears killed on hunts; Ainu word that means "The god's departure" Ch. 113
Kamuy Mintar The Ainu word for Daisetsuzan which means "place where there are a lot of brown bears" Ch. 101
Kamuy Nomi Ainu term that means "to pray to the gods" Ch. 109
Kamuy Renkayne Ainu term that means "thanks to the gods" Ch. 161
Kamuycep Ainu word for salmon that means "fish of the gods" Ch. 125
Karimpaunku Bow wrapped in cherry tree bark Ch. 3
Karkani Ainu word for a fire striker Ch. 204
Karop A container for fire-starting tools Ch. 204
Karpas Mushroom that have been turned into charcoal Ch. 204
Karpas sintoko A container for charcoal used to light a fire Ch. 204
Karsuma A stone used to start fires Ch. 204
Kasinat A trap for waterbirds Ch. 108
Kemonuytosayep Ainu spool with attached needle case Ch. 115
Kite Ainu word for "harpoon" Ch. 114
Konkon Etaspe Ainu word for "large sea lions" Ch. 147
Korkoni Ainu word for "butterbur leaves" Ch. 73
Kuca Temporary hut Ch. 126
Kunne ecinke Ainu word for "Green sea turtles" Ch. 114
Kutci Ainu word for the fruit of the hardy kiwi Ch. 125
Kutuma A dango that is "tube cooked" Ch. 91
Makayo Ainu word for "butterbur shoots" Ch. 73
Marek A harpoon with a hook on the end Ch. 125
Matakarip Bears that have missed their hibernation peroid and thus are very aggressive; Means "those that move in winter" Ch. 1
Matnepa Ainu word meaning "women's season" Ch. 73
Mawtacup "The month when we harvest beach roses" Ch. 115
Menaspa Ainu word for "East wind" Ch. 254
Menas Hoku Kor "Make the East wind their husband" Ch. 254
Menokomakiri Short knife for women Ch. 3
Menokoru Female toilet Ch. 95
Munciro Ainu word for "foxtail millet" Ch. 125
Ninketeyep A tool used to hold a bear's gall bladder so that it can be dried out
Nisew Ainu word for "acorns" Ch. 125
Nisu Ainu word for "mortar" Ch. 91
Noya Ainu word for "mugwort" Ch. 104
O Ainu word for "genitals" Ch. 116
Ociw Ainu word for "two people having sex" Ch. 116
Okkayoru Male toilet Ch. 95
Onne sipesipetki Ainu word for "Migratory locusts" Ch. 114
Onturep akam Ainu term that means "discs made from fermented giant lilies" Ch. 91
Pawci casi Ainu term that means "the place where Pawci Kamuy lives" Ch. 100
Pawci Kamuy The Ainu god of lust who is said not to be kind-hearted Ch. 100
Pekanpe The fruits of water caltrops; Means "the thing which sits on the water" Ch. 118
Pinneraw AInu word for "young male deer" Ch. 108
Pipa A tool made from the sharpened shell of a pearl mussel used to rip off earheads Ch. 125
Pirika Ainu word for "beautiful" Ch. 151
Pirka menoko Ainu word that means "beautiful woman"
Piyapa Ainu word for "Japanese millet" Ch. 125
Prashka A trap that a small indigenous group in Russia uses to catch squirrels Ch. 101
Pu Ainu word for "food storehouse" Ch. 115
Pukusa Ainu word for "Alpine leek" Ch. 73
Puyapuya Ainu word for "Brook lamprey"
Raykur Siyuk Ainu burial clothes Ch. 102
Retannoya Ainu word for "Ezo sneezeworts" Ch. 100
Sak Somo Ayep The name of a snake; Means "that which is not spoken of in summer" Ch. 104
Saranip Ainu word for "knapsack" Ch. 3
Sarorun Kamuy Ainu term that means "god of the wetlands" Ch. 108
Sarorunrimse Crane dance that is passed down in Kushiro Ch. 108
Seypirakka A children's toy; Ainu word that means "shell clogs" Ch. 70
Sintoko Lacquerware containers used to store food or alcohol Ch. 125
Sipe Referring to salmon which is the staple food of the Ainu people; Ainu word that means "the real food" Ch. 127
Sisam Ainu term for non-Ainu Japanese people Ch. 2
Sitat Bark from white birch trees Ch. 2
Situnpe Kamuy Benevolent gods. Ch. 148
Sutuker Footwear woven from grapevines
Suwasi Ainu word for "false spirea"; The name means "a bitter shrub" Ch. 164
Tamasay A necklace that is worn by women; "Tama" for short Ch. 125
Tasiro Ainu word for "hunting knife" Ch. 3
Teine Pokna Mosir A hell that Wen Kamuy are sent to Ch. 2
Tekunpe Ainu hand cover
Tetarape Ainu clothing Ch. 181
Tokap Ainu word for "breasts" Ch. 92
Tonoto A traditional alcoholic drink in Ainu culture Ch. 113
Toprap kitay cise Ainu term that means "a house thatched with bamboo grass leaves" Ch. 95
Torar Long, durable leather straps made from sea lion skins Ch. 148
Turep Ainu word for "Giant lilies" Ch. 91
Tureptacir Ainu word for woodcocks; Means "the bird that digs up giant lilies"
Tureptani An Ainu tool that resembles the beaks of woodcocks used to dig out the roots of giant lilies
Ukocanupkor An Ainu term meaning to have sexual intercourse Ch. 109
Ukuripe Ainu word for "Lamprey"
Unarpe Ainu word for "aunt" Ch. 254
Uweinkar Ainu word for "clairvoyance" Ch. 95
Uwepeker Ainu word for "folk tales" Ch. 111
Uworamkotte "Joined hearts with each other" Ch. 254
Wakkakep A tool used to bail out the water that collects in the bottom of a boat Ch. 114
Wen Kamuy Ainu word for "evil god" Ch. 2
Yachi manako Ainu word that means "swamp eye" Ch. 112
Yarcip Ainu bark canoe Ch. 93

Yuk

Ainu word for "deer"

Yuk ker Ainu word for "deerskin boots" Ch. 3

Karafuto Ainu[edit | edit source]

Term Meaning Reference
Cepker Boots made from salmon skin Ch. 142
Henke Karafuto Ainu word for "grandpa" Ch. 141
Hohciri Ainu ornament that young boys wear until they turn ten years of age Ch. 151
Isohseta The dog that is at the front of dog sleds and leads the other dogs Ch. 142
Kawre Poles that are used to steer the dog sled Ch. 142
Kuciri Karafuto Ainu word for "wolverine" Ch. 147
Meekot Ainu word which means "something that can die in the cold" Ch. 169
Meko Ainu word for "cat" Ch. 169
Meko Oyasi Ainu word for "cat monster" Ch. 169
Nuso Karafuto Ainu word for "sled" Ch. 141
Nusoh sutoo Skis used by the person riding the sled Ch. 142
Onaha Karafuto Ainu word for "father" Ch. 151
Opokay Karafuto Ainu word for "musk deer" Ch. 151
Paase Karafuto Ainu word for "heavy" Ch. 141
Pera Karafuto Ainu word for "stop" Ch,. 142
Puu Food storage building Ch. 169
Seta rus Karafuto Ainu word for "dog pelt" Ch. 142
Setakiraw A headdress that is worn only by the lead dog Ch. 142
Setakuma Hitching post for dogs Ch. 141
Saha cise Karafuto Ainu word for "summer home" Ch. 141
Sikeni The body of the sled Ch. 142
Toh Karafuto Ainu word for "mush" while dog sledding Ch. 141
Toi cise Karafuto Ainu word for "winter home" Ch. 141

Orok People[edit | edit source]

Term Meaning Reference
Aaktniee aapuni A hat worn by Orok women Ch. 162
Aariptu Headband used to drive out spirits that cause illness Ch. 165
Agdapsee Orok word for "thank you" Ch. 165
Amma Orok word for "father" Ch. 160
Ari Butter made from domesticated reindeer milk Ch. 160
Aundau Winter home for the Orok people Ch. 159
Ayaa Orok word which means "it's fine" Ch. 166
Kaura Orok summer home Ch. 192
Manga Orok word for "amazing" Ch. 160
Nuga A wild reindeer that stands guard and acts as the lookout Ch. 159
Orocikk Ulaa "Reindeer disguise" used as a decoy when hunting wild reindeers Ch. 159
Ripeeska Bread baked from wheat flour Ch. 160
Sama A shaman who acts as an intermediary between people and gods Ch. 164
Sewa Orok figurines used for medical treatment Ch. 165
Siro Wild reindeers Ch. 159
Ulaa Domesticated reindeers Ch. 159
Ulaa Ceengeini A collar for reindeers with a pole attached Ch. 159
Ulaa Kangaldani A board with bells on it, used for raising reindeer

Ch. 159

Nivkh People[edit | edit source]

Term Meaning Reference
Kann ikur Hitching post for dogs Ch. 192
Ke ryv

Summer home

Ch. 192
To ryv Winter home Ch. 192

Ainu Tools[edit | edit source]

  • The Poison Arrow
  • Amappo
  • Sitat
  • Squirrel Trap
  • Kuca
  • Rabbit Trap
  • Itatani
  • Pu
  • Mukkur
  • Iteseni
  • Herpeset
  • Heperesinotpe
  • Raomap
  • Sutu
  • Kisarri
  • Uko Karip Ciwe
  • Ratcako
  • Ipapkeni
  • Pise
  • Kuyoy
  • Manakanit
  • Menokoita
  • Kapacirap
  • An
  • Trap Foxes
  • Klaa

Characters[edit | edit source]

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